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The official Hetep-her-akhet sounds the theme that in building his tomb he chose an empty spot and did not damage another man's tomb. He also addresses a warning to future generations of visitors not to enter the tomb with evil intentions.

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Moving into the time of the Sixth Dynasty, we sample the declaration of innocence of Nefer-seshem-re, which embodies the principal elements in the catalogue of virtues which was being elaborated in this period. Nihebsed-Pepi has summarized his prayers for offerings and for a good reception in the West in the capsuled, self-contained form of the stela which, now still a part of the tomb, was destined to become an independent monument. Lastly, the two long inscriptions of Weni and Harkhuf are the two most important autobiographical inscriptions of Old Kingdom officials and show the growth of the autobiography into a major literary genre.

The inscriptions in this fine, large tomb consist entirely of funerary prayers and of the names and titles of the princess and her father. They are carved on two architraves, two false-doors, and on the two pillars of the pillared hall. The relief figure of the princess, shown standing or seated at the offering table, concludes the texts.

The two principal inscriptions are on the two architraves. May she travel on the good ways on which a revered one travels well. This is one of two inscriptions carved in vertical columns on the two sides of the entrance leading into the tomb-chapel. Behind the text columns is the standing relief figure of the tomb-owner. Publication: Mariette, Mastabas, p.


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HolwerdaBoeser, Beschreibung, I, pl. Sethe, Urkunden, I, 50— Mohr, The Mastaba of Hetep-her-akhti. As for any people who would enter 3 this tomb unclean and do something evil to it, there will be judgment against them 4 by the great god.


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  8. I made this tomb because I was honored by the king, who brought me a sarcophagus. On the False-Door of his Tomb at Saqqara Sixth Dynasty As the focal point of the tomb, the false-door carried the offering-table scene and the name and titles of the tomb-owner. In addition, it came to be used for brief autobiographical statements, especially those which affirmed the deceased's moral worth.

    These affirmations became increasingly formulaic, and the limited space of the false-door lent itself to capsuled formulations. The stylization of these catalogs of virtues also meant that they were not told in the prose of the narrative autobiography, but were recited in the symmetrically patterned phrases of the orational style. Publication: Capart, Rue de Tombeaux, pl.

    Sethe, Urkunden, I, — The text is written twice, in three columns on each side of the door, and ends with a short horizontal line containing the deceased's name whose relief figure stands below it:. I spoke truly, I did right, I spoke fairly, I repeated fairly, I seized the right moment, So as to stand well with people. I gave bread to the hungry, clothes , I brought the boatless to land.

    I buried him who had no son, I made a boat for him who lacked one. I respected my father, I pleased my mother, I raised their children. So says he 4 whose nickname is Sheshi.

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    A painted slab stela ca. On the left, facing right, are the standing figures of the deceased and his wife.

    The inscription consists of seven horizontal lines which fill the right side and one short vertical column in front of the man's legs. May the Western Desert give her hands to him in peace, in peace before the great god. The inscription is carved on a monolithic slab of limestone which formed one wall of the single-room tomb-chapel.

    The structure may have been a cenotaph rather than a tomb.

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    The text consists of fifty-one vertical columns of finely carved hieroglyphs, preceded by one horizontal line which contains a prayer for offerings. Since some scholars include the first line in their numbering while others omit it, I have given double numbers. The stone has suffered considerable damage, resulting in a number of lacunae. Publication: Mariette, Abydos, II, pls. Sethe, Urkunden, I, 98— Wilson in ANET, pp.

    While my office was that of ——— his majesty made me senior warden of Nekhen, his heart being filled with me beyond any other servant of his.

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    I heard cases alone with the chief judge and vizier, concerning all kinds of secrets. It came with him in a great barge of the court, together with its lid, a doorway, lintel, two doorjambs and a libation-table. Never before had the like been done for any servant — but I was excellent in his majesty's heart; I was rooted in his majesty's heart; his majesty's heart was filled with me.

    While I was senior warden of Nekhen, his majesty made me a sole companion and overseer of the royal tenants. I replaced four overseers ofroyal tenants who were there. I acted for his majesty's praise in guarding, escorting the king, and attending. When there was a secret charge in the royal harem against Queen Weret-yamtes, his majesty made me go in to hear it alone. No chief judge and vizier, no official was there, only I alone; because I was worthy, because I was rooted in his majesty's heart; because his majesty had filled his heart with me.

    Only I put it in writing together with one other senior warden of Nekhen, while my rank was only that of overseer of royal tenants. Never before had one like me heard a secret of the king's harem; but his majesty made me hear it, because I was worthy in his majesty's heart beyond any official of his, beyond any noble of his, beyond any servant of his.

    His majesty sent me at the head of this army, there being counts, royal seal-bearers, sole companions of the palace, chieftains and mayors of towns of Upper and Lower Egypt, companions, scout-leaders, chief priests of Upper and Lower Egypt, and chief district officials at the head of the troops of Upper and Lower Egypt, from the villages and towns that they governed and from the Nubians of those foreign lands.

    I led them from Northern Isle and Gate of Iyhotep in the district of Horus-lord-of-truth while being in this rank. I determined the number of these troops.

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    It had never been determined by any servant. His majesty praised me for it beyond anything. His majesty sent me to lead this army five times, to attack the land of the Sand-dwellers as often as they rebelled, with these troops. I acted so that his majesty praised me [for it beyond anything]. I made a landing in the back of the height of the mountain range, to the north of the land of the Sand-dwellers, while half of this army was on the road. I came and caught them all and slew every marauder among them. When I was chamberlain of the palace and sandal-bearer, King Mernere, my lord who lives forever, made me Count and Governor of Upper Egypt, from Yebu in the south to Medenyt in the north, because I was worthy in his majesty's heart, because I was rooted in his majesty's heart, because his majesty's heart was filled with me.

    Never before had this office been held by any servant.

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    I governed Upper Egypt for him in peace, so that no one attacked his fellow. I did every task. I counted everything that is countable for the residence in this Upper Egypt two times, and every service that is countable for the residence in this Upper Egypt two times. I did a perfect job in this Upper Egypt. Never before had the like been done in this Upper Egypt. I acted throughout so that his majesty praised me for it. His majesty sent me to Ibhat to bring the sarcophagus "chest of the living" together with its lid, and the costly august pyramidion for the pyramid "Mernere-appears-in-splendor," my mistress.

    This group of texts come from the Middle Kingdom town site of Illahun. Illahun has provided the most extensive body of documentary textual material in MiddleEgyptian yet discovered from a single site. This docu mentary material has aparticular focus on the running of the temple at Illahun and social life at the town-site itself. Set text:. Other texts which may be studied:.

    P UC transfer deed of Mery Keby. P Berlin change of phyle protocol. P Berlin B: temple accounts. P Berlin letter informing of approaching festival. Berlin and Te mple directives. These texts will be drawn from K. Leipzig: J. Hinrichs, , pp.