At the end of the war, it returned to being civil with the name of Birmingham County Hospital. At the end of the Second World War it resumed civilian operation under the name of Northfield Hospital. In the s it began to decline and in it was closed. In this hospital, Rickman and Bion started what was called the first Northfield experiment.
Bion and Rickman, having been commissioned to direct the Training Wing, that is the Military Training and Rehabilitation Department, dedicated to the care of soldiers who are victims of war neuroses, in order to improve their morale and return them to their military duties, they decided to propose again the experience of the group without leaders; the regulations they devised provided that every soldier could freely fit into an existing work team or create a new one or rest without doing anything, but everyone had to participate in a group discussion that would invariably be held every day at At the beginning of the experiment few adhered to the idea of starting to work, even if over time the number of those who decided to join a work team increased more and more thanks to the increase in team spirit and progressive isolation of idlers.
After 6 weeks the Army Headquarters decided to stop the experiment, after only few weeks. Officially due to accounting irregularities but in reality because he considered these procedures to be inconsistent with military discipline; despite the abrupt interruption, this brief revolutionary experiment led to remarkable developments in the understanding and management of group dynamics, not only in mental health but in public services and organizations.
At the beginning of December Bion and Rickman were transferred from the Second Birmingham War Hospital while, about three weeks later, Siegmund Heinrich Foulkes arrived, who would participate, along with others, in the second Northfield experiment the following year. In September while Rickman remained in London, Bion was transferred to Normandy, where he remained until the end of the war, with the task of selecting officers.
In Normandy he knew he had become a father and a widower at the same time. After the war, in Bion returned to his homeland and bought a house in Iver Heat in Iver, where he went to live with his daughter, a nanny and his father, in addition he began the clinical practice in Harley Street at London, the same street where in his youth he found himself working in a rented apartment.
One afternoon the child wanted to be taken in her arms by her father who was sitting in the garden and walking on all fours to reach him broke into a desperate cry; the nurse got up to take her in her arms but Bion stopped her. Then the child cried even louder and the nanny, disobeying him, picked her up. Bion felt freed from that moment and, though he feared he had lost her, he began to have a real relationship with her.
In the same year he wanted to resume his analysis, but Rickman said that after the past spent together in the army it would not have been appropriate and Bion agreed. He then turned to Melanie Klein, whom he had heard a lot about.
The relationship with Klein was very ambivalent. On the one hand he considered her authoritative, but on the other he was aware of not being totally in agreement with her theories. He felt very disturbed by having to pay for the missed sessions, even for just reasons, like an attack of viral hepatitis. Transfert was not very positive as Bion every time he received an interpretation from her, he initiated a dispute, even if, after the session was over, he thought better of himself, he admitted to himself that Klein was right.
In he met Francesca McCallum, a researcher at the Tavistock Clinic and, having fallen in love with her, he married her on June 9, Wilfred and Francesca had a baby Julian, born July 30, and who became a doctor, and a little girl Nicola, born June 13 In , Bion applied to be admitted to the British Psychoanalytical Society, whose history is intertwined with the history of English psychoanalysis.
With regard to the number of Founding Members, there is a lack of information: Jones communicates to Freud in letter n. The beginnings of this company were problematic; the first meetings of the company were characterized by a meager number of participants as non-London residents participated in company life from time to time. Simultaneously with its own foundation, it was the scene of a clash between Freudians and Jungians, consequent to the results of the 4th International Psychoanalytical Association Conference held at the Bayerische Hof, a luxurious hotel in Munich, on 7th and 8th September He hoped for a triumph so that he could give psychoanalysis its imprint, marginalizing Freud and Abraham and destroying all their work.
However, the argument presented was judged by the vast majority of those present, and above all by the leaders of the psychoanalytic movement, not only absolutely extraneous to the themes of psychoanalysis but even incompatible with the same and probably more suited to the rubric of a newspaper for housewives rather than at a large international conference. Jones, who was a Freudian, did not want to leave the London Psychoanalytical Association to the Jungians for which a violent internal conflict broke out over the ownership of the company.
While this conflict was at the height of the clashes, World War I broke out on 28th July The newly formed company found itself having to suspend relations with the parent company, the Wiener Psychoanalytische Society as Austria was on the opposite side to that of England. During the war there were only some meetings of the society which, moreover, with the passing of time became less and less frequent and therefore consequently there were also few clashes. On 11st November , the end of the war was declared, so that by returning to normal, the meetings of the company resumed, and therefore also the clashes.
The formal reasons given by Jones were that by now psychoanalysis had spread throughout England so maintaining the old name would have been proof of provincialism while the new name gave a national breath; in reality the old partners had to receive an approval based on the scientific curriculum to pass to the new society defined Freudian by statute , such change served to Jones not to admit in it the Jungians. In Jones, with the help of John Rickman, gave birth to the London Institute of Psychoanalysis modeled on the Berliner Psychoanalytisches Institut, Polyklinik und Lehranstalt which was both a training institute and a hospital.
In fact, those who could not afford private therapy could have access to psychoanalytic therapies, and the Institute was also a training school for analysts. The method followed in this Institute was defined by Abraham as tripartite because it was based on three points: attendance at theoretical courses, didactic analysis, analytical supervision. This complete didactic methodology included: theoretical learning of the doctrine, undergoing personal analysis and practicing analysis on others patietns and by reporting on their progress to their supervisor for control and verification, was so successful that it was then re-proposed in all other Institutes of formation in Psychoanalysis all over the world, therefore also in the London Institute of Psychoanalysis, and it is still is the model followed.
In Melanie Klein, whose theories had strongly influenced British analysts, was invited to London to hold a series of lectures, finding a great success for which she was invited by Jones to move to England.
In Melanie Klein, considering that in the German-speaking psychoanalytic world was not much appreciated, that on the contrary she preferred the other great theorist of infantile psychoanalysis, her opponent Anna Freud, and that her teacher Karl Abraham had died l year before, she accepted the invitation to move to London, leaving the Deutsche Psychoanalytische Gesellschaft to become a member of the British Psychoanalytical Society. Also in , within the British Psychoanalytical Society, the London Clinic of Psychoanalysis was born, which like its Berlin counterpart provided psychoanalytic treatments for adults and children at low cost, thus allowing access to this type of treatment to those that, for economic reasons, they would not have been able to afford it.
In the rise of the Nazi party in Germany, due to racial persecution policies, gave way to a great exodus of Jews, and therefore also of analysts, in other parts of the world, but mainly in England and the USA. A second wave of refugees took place between and following the German annexation of Austria and Czechoslovakia and the alliance with various nations that accepted the racial laws including Italy, Hungary, Romenia, Bulgaria; in this group there were also Sigmund and Anna Freud who chose to move to London, where they were received triumphantly in the British Psychoanalytical Society.
The beginning of World War II, which took place on September 1, , led the Germans to occupy various nations including Poland, Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg, Yugoslavia, Greece, Denmark, Norway, France in which the racial persecutions were established which led to a third migratory wave of Jews. The arrival of these analysts, mostly followers of Anna Freud, in England could not but lead to tensions with the followers of Melanie Klein.
After the death of Sigmund Freud, in , the conflict between Anna Freud and Melanie Klein, that lasted for a long time, at distance, from the previous decade, exploded furiously within the British Psychoanalytical Society; more and more often, in fact, the publication of psychoanalytic articles or the interventions at the various conferences were used to bring more or less veiled attacks to the theories of the opposite faction.
Three factions were born, one linked to the Ego Psychology and led by Anna Freud, one linked to of Object Relations Theory led by Melanie Klein and the third defined Independent, because the members of it were not lined up, led by Ernst Jones. In , following the German bombing of London which had destroyed many homes, Anna Freud established the Hampstead from the name of the street where they were staying War Nurseries, which not only offered food and lodging to around homeless children, but provided they too a psychoanalytic treatment for the emotional suffering caused to them by the war events; this structure offered a unique opportunity for observation on children both in the clinical and research fields and for the development of effective therapeutic strategies.
Such positive feedback of his own ideas made Anna Freud even more resolute in the affirmation of his ideas, which led to an escalation of the conflicts, to the point of evoking almost a split in the British Psychoanalytical Society for which in , Ernst Jones undisputed leader, after the death of Freud, of the world psychoanalytic movement in general and of the British one in particular, he ordered the two contenders to find an agreement; fearful of an expulsion from the IPA, they decided to negotiate.
On October 21st of the same year the Controversial Discussions began which lasted until February These consisted of periodic meetings in which one member of one group and one of the other presented their respective points of view on the various theoretical, treatment and formative aspects of psychoanalysis to a committee, which was chaired by three members of the society, one for each group which represented one of the main factions, namely from James Strachey for the independents, Marjorie Brierley for the Kleinians, Edward Glover for the orthodox group and for ego psychologists.
The outcome of the Controversial Discussions, which took place in February , led to an agreement that, although avoiding a real schism, had however important consequences, since the most orthodox Freudian group led by Edward Glover resigned en masse from the British Psychoanalytical Society, believing that in it were violated the teachings of the Master. The agreement, stipulated after a year of negotiations to apply in practice what had been defined in theory, was taken by the two adversaries in the presence of a guarantor, namely Silvia Payne, as the second President of the British Psychoanalytical Society, a position she held from , when she took the place of Jones, until , when Rickman took over.
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In , the Hampstead War Nurseries, having ended the war, took on another denomination, Hampstead Clinic, which continued to be interested in low-cost diagnosis and treatment of developmental disorders. In , in this clinic, Anna Freud instituted a Postgraduate Course in Child Psychoanalysis, a discipline hitherto briefly dealt with in courses designed for the treatment of adults. In , a nursery school was opened there, providing pre-school education based on psychoanalytic principles.
In at the 25th IPA Conference "On the acting-out and its role in the psychoanalytic process", held from 23rd to 28th July at the Falkonercentret in Copenhagen Hovedstaden, Denmark the Nederlandse Vereniging voor Psychoanalyse, of strict Freudian observance, presented the Ritvo Report, named after his Author Samuel Ritvo, in which he asked that child analysts, who specialized in the Hampstead Child Therapy Course and Clinic or in similar structures, were accepted as effective members in the Local Psychoanalytic Societies as well as in the IPA; the decision to accept or not this proposal was postponed to the next conference.
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In there was the 26th IPA Conference "New developments in psychoanalysis", held from July 27th to August 1st at the Cavalieri Hilton Hotel in Rome; the Kleinian psychoanalysts including Adam Limentani, Masud Khan, Hanna Segal, fearing that the arrival of child analysts in the British Psychoanalytical Society could have overturned the positions of strength within it in favor of Freud, managed to postpone the decision at the next conference. At the 27th IPA Conference "The Psychoanalytic Concept of Aggression" held from 26th to 30th July at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna for the first time in this city where psychoanalysis was born, Anna Freud presented a petition requesting that the Hampstead Child Therapy Course and Clinic be recognized as a Study Group; the elected president, the twelfth from the beginning, Leo Rangell, closer to the Kleinians, postponed the decision once again to the next conference.
After this conference there were many contacts between the British Psychoanalytical Society and Anna Freud to find an agreement so that a schism could be avoided and problems with the IPA were averted. On 15 May an agreement was signed between William Hewitt Gillespie, fourteenth President of the British Psychoanalytical Association and Anna Freud; the latter would have abandoned the project of making its own training institute an autonomous study group and revised its study plan by adding more didactic modules related to the treatment of adults and on the other hand the child analysts who graduated from the Hampstead Child Therapy Course and Clinic could have enrolled in the British Psychoanalytical Society with a short educational path supplement.
The First President was Melanie Klein. In the second half of the s, Bion felt that the English psychoanalytic atmosphere was suffocating him because it was too saturated with the Kleinian ideas from which he was slowly abandoning, so in he did not appear at the elections for the Presidency of the British Psychoanalytical Society to which was elected Donald Woods Winnicott and in also resigned as President of the Melanie Klein Trust, which went to Herbert Rosenfeld. In he was proposed to move to Los Angeles California, USA as a Didactical Analyst, a position he accepted without hesitation, feeling that there was little room for his ideas in England.
In Los Angeles, psychoanalysis began to spread towards the end of thanks to the arrival in this city of Thomas Justin Libbin and of Margrit Tobler Munk who will become his wife. Wilson psychologist , Arthur R. This very diverse group had an informal nature and met in the house of the Libbins with a more cultural than practical-educational mission.
However, to make a qualitative leap, a highly experienced training analyst was needed. Simmel accepted and arrived in Los Angeles on April 27, with his wife and two-year-old son.
Compared to the first group, in the second group all those who did not believe in the existence of the unconscious or who did not have the requisites to continue the psychoanalytic path like Tolman were estranged or not admitted. The first seminars on literature and psychoanalysis began on the education of children , the first didactic analyzes, refresher courses for social workers and educationalists.
However, in order to be able to request an IPA status of an autonomous institution, there was still no famous analyst who acted as guarantor; for this reason, Herz in Deri invited Otto Fenichel, one of the most important European psychoanalysts, to join the group.
He arrived in with his girlfriend and future wife, also a psychoanalyst, Johanna Heilborn later better known as Hanna Fenichel. To concentrate on this work, Simmel left the presidency of the study group in and was succeeded in this position in by David Brunswick and in by Otto Fenichel, who died on 22nd January ; in its place was named Frances Deri. At the beginning of , coming from New York, Dr. May E. Romm joined the Los Angeles Psychoanalytic Study Group, she would have played an important role in future events.
Another resentment arose from the fact that Simmel called the Romm Lady and not a Doctor; he used this form because in the Germanic world this way of expressing himself considered himself gallant while she thought it was a derogatory fact. This institute did not have an easy life from the beginning because, to the already present personal contrasts between Simmel and Romm, theoretical disputes were added for which two groups were formed, one formed by the followers of Simmel, composed mainly of lay people and faithful to Freudian principles and another formed by the followers of the Romm, composed only of psychiatrists, inspired by the principles of Franz Alexander who was theorising to replace classical analysis with short techniques such as his Corrective Emotional Experience.
His group, however, meting his revenge, managed to win the elections for the office of President both in June with Charles Tidd and in June with Ernst Lewy. The group of psychiatrists, realizing that they are in the minority, at this point decided to carry out what in the history of psychoanalysis will be called the Split. Romm abandoned Institute for Psychoanalysis to found the Society for Psychoanalytic Medicine of Southern California, in which only doctors would have been admitted. Both companies were recognized during the s by the American Psychoanalytic Association.
In , given the inclination for short therapies of the Society for Psychoanalytic Medicine of Southern California, Alexander adhered to it, then the greatest exponent of this technique; in , however, taking note of the global trend of psychoanalysis, this society also decided to admit the laity and changed its name to Southern California Psychoanalytic Institute and Society.
In a group of psychoanalysts, separating from the Southern California Psychoanalytic Institute and Society, inaugurated the Los Angeles Institute and Society for Psychoanalytic Studies with the intent to create a structure with more liberal rules than traditional ones, it will subsequently be affiliated with the IPA; the founding partners were Charles Ansell, Hedda Bolgar, Barbara Carr, Clifton J.
Caruth, Elaine G. Caruth, Milton J. In those years the thought of Klein and her followers was spreading, so that while some big exponents of "object relations", including Herbert Rosenfeld, Hanna Segal, David Woods Winnicott and Henry Guntrip, from England, often came in Los Angeles to hold seminars, others including Bion, Albert Mason, Susanna Isaacs-Elmhirst moved there. The spread of Kleinian thought led to considerable tensions within the Los Angeles Psychoanalytic Institute and Society, triggering also the Klein Wars in California; at the turn of the late 60s and early 70s, Ralph Greenson, the current leader of the Los Angeles Freudians, came into conflict with both native Californian Kleinians and those from England and with Leo Rangell, also belonging to the Los Angeles Psychoanalytic Institute and Society, in role as the twelfth President of the IPA between and , he had entered into opposition with Anna Freud, siding with the Kleinians.
Towards the end of the s, the conflict, also thanks to the agreement made between Anna Freud and the British Psychoanalytical Society, apparently seemed to subside; the fire, however, smoldered under the ashes: in , in fact, there was still the split, with the birth in Los Angeles of the Kleinian Psychoanalytic Center of California; the Founding Members were James Gooch President , Shirley Gooch, Yvonne Hansen, Albert Mason, Avedis Panajian, Michael Paul, Frederick Vaquer, Murray Weiler; the center also set up its own training institute in and was admitted to the IPA in Yasser, founded the Wright Institute Los Angeles, as a branch of the Wright Institute Berkeley Berkeley, California , with the intention of creating a university institute that merged psychoanalytic instances with those of social psychology; it was soon joined by the Hedda Bolgar Psychotherapy Clinic, which specializes in providing low-cost psychoanalytic treatments.
In the late s and early s, as the Southern California Psychoanalytic Institute and Society was repositioning itself on classical psychoanalytic positions, in a group of Los Angeles analysts turned away from it and decided to open a new one training institute, the Institute of Contemporary Psychoanalysis, based on the Psychology of Self and open to new contributions from Neurosciences and in which analysts were taught a type of approach to the less authoritarian patient than the traditional one; the founding partners were Louis Breger President , Doryann Lebe, Herb Linden, John A.
Over time, in the Southern California Psychoanalytic Institute and Society the two reasons that led to the Split of the non-admission of the laity to psychoanalytic training and the removal from classical psychoanalytic positions , had both been abandoned; therefore in the aforementioned Institute and the Los Angeles Psychoanalytic Society and Institute merged, creating the New Center for Psychoanalysis, readily accepted by the IPA.
In the Wright Institute Los Angeles became independent of the Berkeley parent company; indipendentely it continued to deliver low-cost psychoanalytic treatments but stopped providing degree courses in psychology by activating Postgraduate Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Courses in their place. Bion reached Los Angeles in January and decided to stop here; the Californian climate and its landscapes reminded him, even if partially, of those he never forgotten of India; he became a Lecturer and Analyst in the Los Angeles Psychoanalytic Institute and Society in which he was involved, despite himself, in Klein Wars.
From , the year in which the conflict between the Kleinians and the Freudians had subsided and therefore his daily presence within the Los Angeles Psychoanalytic Institute and Society was no longer necessary, he began to travel periodically abroad to hold seminars at various psychoanalytic institutions in Brazil, Argentina, France, Italy and also at the same Tavistock Clinic where he had trained and worked in his youth.
In August , Bion decided to return permanently to London to be near his children. Arriving in London, he decided to take a break from work to take a trip to that India which had always remained in his heart, setting the start for January Unfortunately, Bion will not be able to make the trip to India, as he came struck down by fulminant leukemia on 8th November Wilfred Ruprecht Bion was the most turbulent student of Melanie Klein, whose dogmatism he refused to construct a complex theory based on a mathematical model, which combines emotions with the development of the ontogenetic of thought.
Bion began to formulate his own doctrine during the Second World War; the development of this doctrine took place through the succession of four phases, each lasting ten or more years and partially overlapping. The concepts developed in the first phase, which goes from to , concern group processes and are included in the text "Experiences in groups".
The concepts developed in the second phase, which runs from to , steeped in Kleinian ideas and included in the text "Reflecting ourselves better", went on to constitute his First Theory of Thought. He attempted to formulate a scientific conception of psychoanalysis, but the results obtained are complex and not satisfactory as those obtained by Freud in the text "Project for a Scientific Psychology" were not. Despite these issues, some of his ideas were really intuitive.